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Innate Immun. 2010 Jun;16(3):168-74. doi: 10.1177/1753425910366059. Epub 2010 Apr 23.

Review: Mammalian peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) in innate immunity.

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Indiana University School of Medicine Northwest, Gary, USA.


Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs or PGLYRPs) are innate immunity proteins that are conserved from insects to mammals, recognize bacterial peptidoglycan, and function in antibacterial immunity and inflammation. Mammals have four PGRPs - PGLYRP1, PGLYRP2, PGLYRP3, and PGLYRP4. They are secreted proteins expressed in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PGLYRP1), liver (PGLYRP2), or on body surfaces, mucous membranes, and in secretions (saliva, sweat) (PGLYRP3 and PGLYRP4). All PGRPs recognize bacterial peptidoglycan. Three PGRPs, PGLYRP1, PGLYRP3, and PGLYRP4 are directly bactericidal for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and have no enzymatic activity, whereas PGLYRP2 is an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase that hydrolyzes bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins influence host- pathogen interactions not only through their antibacterial or peptidoglycan-hydrolytic properties, but also through their pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties that are independent of their hydrolytic and antibacterial activities. The PGRPs likely play a role both in antibacterial defenses and several inflammatory diseases. They modulate local inflammatory responses in tissues (such as arthritic joints) and there is evidence for association of PGRPs with inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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