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Vet Ital. 2007 Jan-Mar;43(1):109-13.

Presence of chemical additives and microbial inhibition capacity in grapefruit seed extracts used in apiculture.

[Article in English, Italian]

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Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise 'G. Caporale', Via Campo Boario, 64100 Teramo, Italy.


American foulbrood, caused by Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae (White 1906) is one of the most serious diseases of honey bees, causing beekeepers and health workers to make difficult, complex decisions and leading to the development of 'organic' treatments, such as grapefruit seed extract, with minor residue problems in the end product. This study evaluates the chemical composition of grapefruit seed extracts using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the detection of benzethonium chloride, cetrimonium bromide and decyltrimethylammonium chloride. The results obtained suggest a close correlation between the microbial effect and the presence of chemical additives in the samples analysed.

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