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J Am Soc Hypertens. 2008 Jan-Feb;2(1):44-53. doi: 10.1016/j.jash.2007.07.001.

Estimated prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension and multiple cardiovascular risk factors and their associated risk of coronary heart disease in the United States.

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IMS Health, Inc., Arlington, Virginia, USA.


This study determined the prevalence of primary prevention patients aged 40 to 79 years with uncontrolled hypertension (HTN) and low/moderate cholesterol levels, and the clinical and economic consequences of their cardiovascular risk levels stratified by additional cardiovascular risk factors. Prevalence was estimated from the 1999 to 2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets. Framingham risk equations were used to calculate the 4-year risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). HTN and cholesterol levels were then statistically "controlled" to ideal levels and risks were recalculated. Prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension was 15.2 million cases (13.7%). Of those, 12.9 million (84.8%) had low/moderate cholesterol levels, and 2.2 million (16.7%) had >/=3 additional risk factors with no history of CHD. Nearly 200,000 coronary events are expected to occur within 4 years, incurring over $2.5 billion in direct medical costs. Statistical estimation suggests that 64% of 4-year risk was attributable to uncontrolled blood pressure and lipids. The large number and high cost of CHD events expected to occur within the next 4 years in primary prevention patients with uncontrolled hypertension and >/=3 additional risk factors justifies aggressive screening to ensure that these patients are identified and properly managed.

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