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J Urol. 2010 Jun;183(6):2244-8. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2010.02.007. Epub 2010 Apr 18.

Diabetic kidney stone formers excrete more oxalate and have lower urine pH than nondiabetic stone formers.

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University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.



The epidemiological relationship between nephrolithiasis and type 2 diabetes mellitus is well-known. Patients with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk for nephrolithiasis and those with nephrolithiasis are at risk for diabetes mellitus. We examined 24-hour urine composition in stone formers with and without diabetes mellitus.


We retrospectively reviewed a database of 462 stone forming patients to examine the relationship between hypertension and 24-hour urine composition. Multivariate linear regression models were adjusted for age, race, gender, body mass index, hypertension, relevant medications and 24-hour urine constituents.


On univariate analysis diabetic patients had significantly greater urine volume than nondiabetic patients (2.5 vs 2.1 l daily, p = 0.004). Those with diabetes mellitus also excreted less daily potassium (61.1 vs 68.8 mEq, p = 0.04), phosphate (0.84 vs 1.0 gm, p = 0.002) and creatinine (1405.5 vs 1562.8 mg, p = 0.03), and had significantly lower daily urine pH (5.78 vs 6.09, p <0.001) and CaP supersaturation (0.49 vs 1.20, p <0.001) than nondiabetic patients. On multivariate analysis compared to patients without diabetes mellitus those with type II diabetes mellitus had significantly lower urine pH (-0.34, 95% CI -0.48 to -0.21) and significantly greater urine oxalate (6.43 mg daily, 95% CI 1.26 to 11.60) and volume (0.38 l daily, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.64).


Results show that of stone formers patients with type II diabetes mellitus excrete significantly greater urinary oxalate and significantly lower urine pH than those without diabetes mellitus. These findings are important for treating nephrolithiasis since they may influence dietary counseling, medical management and stone prevention.

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