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Clin Infect Dis. 2010 May 15;50 Suppl 3:S231-7. doi: 10.1086/651496.

Transmission of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis and the critical importance of airborne infection control in the era of HIV infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy rollouts.

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AIDS Program, Section of Infectious Diseases, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510-2483, USA.


Comprehensive and successful tuberculosis (TB) care and treatment must incorporate effective airborne infection-control strategies. This is particularly and critically important for health care workers and all persons with or at risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Past and current outbreaks and epidemics of drug-susceptible, multidrug-resistant, and extensively drug-resistant TB have been fueled by HIV infection, with high rates of morbidity and mortality and linked to the absence or limited application of airborne infection-control strategies in both resource-rich and resource-limited settings. Airborne infection-control strategies are available--grouped into administrative, environmental, and personal protection categories--and have been shown to be associated with decreases in nosocomial transmission of TB; their efficacy has not been fully demonstrated, and their implementation is extremely limited, particularly in resource-limited settings. New research and resources are required to fully realize the potential benefits of infection control in the era of TB and HIV epidemics.

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