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Biochemistry. 2010 May 18;49(19):4200-7. doi: 10.1021/bi1003519.

Identification of a kinetically significant anion binding (KISAB) site in the N-lobe of human serum transferrin.

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Department of Biochemistry, University of Vermont College of Medicine, 89 Beaumont Avenue, Burlington, Vermont 05405, USA.


Human serum transferrin (hTF) binds two ferric iron ions which are delivered to cells in a transferrin receptor (TFR) mediated process. Critical to the delivery of iron to cells is the binding of hTF to the TFR and the efficient release of iron orchestrated by the interaction. Within the endosome, iron release from hTF is also aided by lower pH, the presence of anions, and a chelator yet to be identified. We have recently shown that three of the four residues comprising a loop in the N-lobe (Pro142, Lys144, and Pro145) are critical to the high-affinity interaction of hTF with the TFR. In contrast, Arg143 in this loop does not participate in the binding isotherm. In the current study, the kinetics of iron release from alanine mutants of each of these four residues (placed into both diferric and monoferric N-lobe backgrounds) have been determined +/- the TFR. The R143A mutation greatly retards the rate of iron release from the N-lobe in the absence of the TFR but has considerably less of an effect in its presence. Our data definitively show that Arg143 serves as a kinetically significant anion binding (KISAB) site that is, by definition, sensitive to salt concentration and critical to the conformational change necessary to induce iron release from the N-lobe of hTF (in the absence of the TFR). This is the first identification of an authentic KISAB site in the N-lobe of hTF. The effect of the single R143A mutation on the kinetic profile of iron release provides a dramatic illustration of the dynamic nature of hTF.

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