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J Clin Neurol. 2006 Jun;2(2):92-106. doi: 10.3988/jcn.2006.2.2.92. Epub 2006 Jun 20.

Charcot-marie-tooth disease: seventeen causative genes.

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1
Department of Neurology and Ewha Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common form of inherited motor and sensory neuropathy. Moreover, CMT is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of the peripheral nervous system, with many genes identified as CMT-causative. CMT has two usual classifications: type 1, the demyelinating form (CMT1); and type 2, the axonal form (CMT2). In addition, patients are classified as CMTX if they have an X-linked inheritance pattern and CMT4 if the inheritance pattern is autosomal recessive. A large amount of new information on the genetic causes of CMT has become available, and mutations causing it have been associated with more than 17 different genes and 25 chromosomal loci. Advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of CMT have revealed an enormous diversity in genetic mechanisms, despite a clinical entity that is relatively uniform in presentation. In addition, recent encouraging studies - shown in CMT1A animal models - concerning the therapeutic effects of certain chemicals have been published; these suggest potential therapies for the most common form of CMT, CMT1A. This review focuses on the inherited motor and sensory neuropathy subgroup for which there has been an explosion of new molecular genetic information over the past decade.

KEYWORDS:

Axon; Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease; Gene; Mutation; Neuropathy

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