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Trends Biochem Sci. 2010 Jul;35(7):368-76. doi: 10.1016/j.tibs.2010.03.009. Epub 2010 Apr 13.

Making RISC.

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Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan.


It is well established that 20- to 30-nt small RNAs, including small interfering RNAs, microRNAs and Piwi-interacting RNAs, play crucial roles in regulating gene expression and control a surprisingly diverse array of biological processes. These small RNAs cannot work alone: they must form effector ribonucleoprotein complexes - RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) - to exert their function. Thus, RISC assembly is a key process in small RNA-mediated silencing. Recent biochemical analyses of RISC assembly, together with new structural studies of Argonaute, the core protein component of RISC, suggest a revised view of how mature RISC, which contains single-stranded guide RNA, is built from small RNAs that are born double-stranded.

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