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Vaccine. 2010 May 21;28(23):3929-35. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.03.067. Epub 2010 Apr 13.

Long-term immunogenicity of influenza vaccine among the elderly: Risk factors for poor immune response and persistence.

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Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.


The elderly have been considered as the priority group for influenza vaccination, but their influenza vaccine-induced antibody was believed to decline more rapidly. Long-term immunogenicity of the influenza vaccine among the elderly was evaluated as compared to young adults. Serum hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) titers were determined at pre- and post-vaccination periods (at 1, 6, and 12 months after vaccination). Of the 1018 subjects, 716 (70.3%) were followed up during a 12-month period. Seroprotection rates at 1 month post-vaccination ranged from 70.1% to 90.3% depending on the age group and influenza vaccine virus strain. At 6 months post-vaccination, seroprotection rates for all three strains had declined significantly in adults >or=65 years (P<0.01), but still met the EMEA criteria. Low pre-vaccination HI titer (<1:40) and advanced age were associated with early decline of HI titers, falling below seroprotective levels around 6 months after vaccination.

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