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Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2010 Apr;66(Pt 4):479-85. doi: 10.1107/S0907444909038360. Epub 2010 Mar 24.

Experimental phasing with SHELXC/D/E: combining chain tracing with density modification.

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1
Department of Structural Chemistry, University of Göttingen, Tammannstrasse 4, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany. gsheldr@shelx.uni-ac.gwdg.de

Abstract

The programs SHELXC, SHELXD and SHELXE are designed to provide simple, robust and efficient experimental phasing of macromolecules by the SAD, MAD, SIR, SIRAS and RIP methods and are particularly suitable for use in automated structure-solution pipelines. This paper gives a general account of experimental phasing using these programs and describes the extension of iterative density modification in SHELXE by the inclusion of automated protein main-chain tracing. This gives a good indication as to whether the structure has been solved and enables interpretable maps to be obtained from poorer starting phases. The autotracing algorithm starts with the location of possible seven-residue alpha-helices and common tripeptides. After extension of these fragments in both directions, various criteria are used to decide whether to accept or reject the resulting poly-Ala traces. Noncrystallographic symmetry (NCS) is applied to the traced fragments, not to the density. Further features are the use of a 'no-go' map to prevent the traces from passing through heavy atoms or symmetry elements and a splicing technique to combine the best parts of traces (including those generated by NCS) that partly overlap.

PMID:
20383001
PMCID:
PMC2852312
DOI:
10.1107/S0907444909038360
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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