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Tob Control. 2010 Apr;19 Suppl 1:i43-50. doi: 10.1136/tc.2009.030700.

Evaluation of California's in-school tobacco use prevention education (TUPE) activities using a nested school-longitudinal design, 2003-2004 and 2005-2006.

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California Department of Public Health, California Tobacco Control Program, PO Box 997377, MS 7206, Sacramento, CA 95899-7377, USA.



Current legislative language requires the California Department of Public Health, California Tobacco Control Program, to evaluate the effectiveness of the school-based Tobacco Use Prevention Education (TUPE) programme in California every 2 years. The objective of the study was to measure change and to identify the impact of school-based tobacco use prevention education activities on youth smoking prevalence and attitudes over time, spanning two school year surveys (2003-2004 and 2005-2006).


Evaluation focused on school-based tobacco use prevention activities in 57 schools (student sample size, n=16 833) that participated in the in-school administration of the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 California Student Tobacco Surveys. Hierarchical linear models were used to predict student tobacco use and precursors to tobacco use.


Overall, student tobacco use, intention to smoke, number of friends smoking and perceived smoking prevalence by peers increased as students moved through grades 9 and 10 to grades 11 and 12. TUPE-related activities showed a suggestive association (p=0.06) with reduced rate in student tobacco use between the two surveys after adjusting for other contextual factors such as each school's socioeconomic characteristics.


TUPE activities appears to be beneficial in reducing tobacco use in California high school students over time. Other contextual factors were important moderating influences on student tobacco use.

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