Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Retrovirology. 2010 Apr 9;7:33. doi: 10.1186/1742-4690-7-33.

The macrophage in HIV-1 infection: from activation to deactivation?

Author information

1
Department of Virology, UPRES EA 4266 Pathogens and Inflammation, IFR 133 INSERM, Franche-Comte University, CHU Besançon, Besançon, France. georges.herbein@univ-fcomte.fr

Abstract

Macrophages play a crucial role in innate and adaptative immunity in response to microorganisms and are an important cellular target during HIV-1 infection. Recently, the heterogeneity of the macrophage population has been highlighted. Classically activated or type 1 macrophages (M1) induced in particular by IFN-gamma display a pro-inflammatory profile. The alternatively activated or type 2 macrophages (M2) induced by Th-2 cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-13 express anti-inflammatory and tissue repair properties. Finally IL-10 has been described as the prototypic cytokine involved in the deactivation of macrophages (dM). Since the capacity of macrophages to support productive HIV-1 infection is known to be modulated by cytokines, this review shows how modulation of macrophage activation by cytokines impacts the capacity to support productive HIV-1 infection. Based on the activation status of macrophages we propose a model starting with M1 classically activated macrophages with accelerated formation of viral reservoirs in a context of Th1 and proinflammatory cytokines. Then IL-4/IL-13 alternatively activated M2 macrophages will enter into the game that will stop the expansion of the HIV-1 reservoir. Finally IL-10 deactivation of macrophages will lead to immune failure observed at the very late stages of the HIV-1 disease.

PMID:
20380696
PMCID:
PMC2859752
DOI:
10.1186/1742-4690-7-33
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center