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J Atheroscler Thromb. 2010 Jun 30;17(6):644-50. Epub 2010 Apr 2.

Relationship among physical activity, smoking, drinking and clustering of the metabolic syndrome diagnostic components.

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Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Kyoto Women's University, Kyoto 605-8501, Japan.



To examine the relation between lifestyle and the number of metabolic syndrome (MetS) diagnostic components in a general population, and to find a means of preventing the development of MetS components.


We examined baseline data from 3,365 participants (2,714 men and 651 women) aged 19 to 69 years who underwent a physical examination, lifestyle survey, and blood chemical examination. The physical activity of each participant was classified according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). We defined four components for MetS in this study as follows: 1) high BP: systolic BP > or = 130 mmHg or diastolic BP > or = 85 mmHg, or the use of antihypertensive drugs; 2) dyslipidemia: high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration < 40 mg/dL, triglycerides concentration > or = 150 mg/dL, or on medication for dyslipidemia; 3) Impaired glucose tolerance: fasting blood sugar level > or = 110 mg/d, or if less than 8 hours after meals > or = 140 mg/dL), or on medication for diabetes mellitus; 4) obesity: body mass index > or = 25 kg/m(2).


Those who had 0 to 4 MetS diagnostic components accounted for 1,726, 949, 484, 190, and 16 participants, respectively, in the Poisson distribution. Poisson regression analysis revealed that independent factors contributing to the number of MetS diagnostic components were being male (regression coefficient b=0.600, p < 0.01), age (b=0.027, p < 0.01), IPAQ class (b=-0.272, p= 0.03), and alcohol consumption (b=0.020, p=0.01). The contribution of current smoking was not statistically significant (b=-0.067, p=0.76).


Moderate physical activity was inversely associated with the number of MetS diagnostic components, whereas smoking was not associated.

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