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Herz. 2010 Mar;35(2):94-101. doi: 10.1007/s00059-010-3329-z.

[Treatment of progressive heart failure: pharmacotherapy, resynchronization (CRT), surgery].

[Article in German]

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  • 1Klinik für Innere Medizin - Kardiologie, Philipps-Universität, Marburg und UKGM GmbH, Standort Marburg, Marburg, Germany.


The treatment of progressive and terminal heart failure follows the principle of causative therapy. Therefore, etiology and pathophysiology of the underlying disease and its hemodynamic conditions are indispensable. This applies to coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, the cardiomyopathies with and without inflammation, and microbial persistence similarly. The classic treatment algorithms both in heart failure with and without reduced ejection fraction are based on measures onloading the heart (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin antagonists, beta-blockers, diuretics) and on antiarrhythmics and anticoagulation, when needed. Device therapy for cardiac resynchronization in left bundle branch block and permanent stimulation therapy may contribute to the hemodynamic benefit. ICD (implantable cardioverter defibrillator) therapy prevents sudden cardiac death, which is often associated with progressive heart failure. Heart transplantation and left ventricular assist devices are final options in the treatment repertoire of terminal heart failure.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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