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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jun;95(6):2755-62. doi: 10.1210/jc.2009-2382. Epub 2010 Apr 7.

Effect of rhythmic gymnastics on volumetric bone mineral density and bone geometry in premenarcheal female athletes and controls.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Research of Musculoskeletal System Th. Garofalidis, University of Athens, KAT Hospital, 10 Athinas Street, Kifissia, 14561 Athens, Greece. stournis@med.uoa.gr

Abstract

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:

Weight-bearing exercise during growth exerts positive effects on the skeleton. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that long-term elite rhythmic gymnastics exerts positive effects on volumetric bone mineral density and geometry and to determine whether exercise-induced bone adaptation is associated with increased periosteal bone formation or medullary contraction using tibial peripheral quantitative computed tomography and bone turnover markers.

DESIGN AND SETTING:

We conducted a cross-sectional study at a tertiary center.

SUBJECTS:

We studied 26 elite premenarcheal female rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and 23 female controls, aged 9-13 yr.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

We measured bone age, volumetric bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), cortical thickness, cortical and trabecular area, and polar stress strength index (SSIp) by peripheral quantitative computed tomography of the left tibia proximal to the distal metaphysis (trabecular) at 14, 38 (cortical), and 66% (muscle mass) from the distal end and bone turnover markers.

RESULTS:

The two groups were comparable according to height and chronological and bone age. After weight adjustment, cortical BMC, area, and thickness at 38% were significantly higher in RG (P < 0.005-0.001). Periosteal circumference, SSIp, and muscle area were higher in RG (P < 0.01-0.001). Muscle area was significantly associated with cortical BMC, area, and SSIp, whereas years of training showed positive association with cortical BMC, area, and thickness independent of chronological age.

CONCLUSIONS:

RG in premenarcheal girls may induce positive adaptations on the skeleton, especially in cortical bone. Increased duration of exercise is associated with a positive response of bone geometry.

PMID:
20375211
DOI:
10.1210/jc.2009-2382
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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