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Pharm Res. 2011 Jan;28(1):58-65. doi: 10.1007/s11095-010-0133-7. Epub 2010 Apr 6.

Microneedles with intrinsic immunoadjuvant properties: microfabrication, protein stability, and modulated release.

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  • 1Research & Development, Apogee Technology, Inc., 129 Morgan Drive, Norwood, Massachusetts 02062, USA.



Intradermal immunization using microneedles requires compatible immunoadjuvant system. To address this challenge, we investigated microneedles coated with polyphosphazene polyelectrolyte, which served both as microfabrication material and an immunoadjuvant compound.


Coated microneedles were fabricated by depositing formulations containing Poly[di(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene], PCPP, on metal shafts, and their physico-chemical characterization was conducted.


Microfabrication of PCPP-coated microneedles exhibited strong dependence on protein-PCPP interactions in solutions and allowed for high efficiency of protein encapsulation. 70°C thermal inactivation studies demonstrated a remarkable increase in functional stability of protein in coated microneedles compared to solution formulation. A potential for modulation of protein release from coated microneedles has been demonstrated through ionic complexation of PCPP with small ions.


Microneedles containing PCPP coatings provide improved protein stability, modulated release, and protein-friendly microfabrication process.

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