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Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2010 Mar;39(3):210-5.

Current trends in diagnostic biomarkers of acute coronary syndrome.

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Research and Development Unit, National Heart Centre, Singapore.


The diagnosis and management of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have evolved dramatically over the past decade. Biomarkers play an important role in the diagnosis of ACS, especially in unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Among these, cardiac troponin and creatine kinase appear to be the most sensitive and specific markers of myocardial injury. Recent studies have revealed several novel biomarkers. Elevated levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 are strong independent markers of increased mortality among patients with ACS. However, the ideal biomarkers that offer early detection, risk stratification, selection of therapy, monitoring disease progression, and treatment efficacy remain to be elucidated. This review assesses limitations and contemporary needs for biomarkers in the context of diagnosis of ACS. It also discusses the newly developing technologies for novel biomarkers or novel biomarker protein signatures discovery, and importance of point-of-care testing for future management.

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