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J Clin Oncol. 2010 May 1;28(13):2233-8. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2009.23.6315. Epub 2010 Apr 5.

Rituximab and subcutaneous 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine combination treatment for patients with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia: clinical and biologic results of a phase II multicenter study.

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1
Department of Hematology, European Institute of Oncology, via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan, Italy. daniele.laszlo@ieo.it

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To assess the efficacy of 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (2-CdA) given subcutaneously (SC) in combination with rituximab in the treatment of newly diagnosed/pretreated patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) and to correlate the response to treatment with biologic findings (immunophenotypic and pharmacogenomic analysis).

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

From December 2003 to February 2007, 29 patients were enrolled. Intended therapy consisted of a combination of rituximab (375 mg/m(2)) on day 1 followed by 2-CdA 0.1 mg/kg (SC injection) for 5 consecutive days, administered monthly for four cycles. Anemia (n = 16), neurologic symptoms (n = 6), symptomatic cryoglobulinemia (n = 4), and thrombocytopenia (n = 3) represented the reasons for starting treatment. The expression of zeta chain-associated protein kinase 70 (Zap-70) and of seven genes involved in 2-CdA metabolism as markers of response to the combination treatment was evaluated.

RESULTS:

With a median follow-up of 43 months, the overall response rate observed was 89.6%, with seven complete responses (CR), 16 partial responses, and three minor response, without any difference between newly or pretreated patients (P = .522). The therapy was well tolerated, except for transitory cardiac toxicity (n = 2) and intolerance to rituximab (n = 2). No major infections were observed despite the lack of antimicrobial prophylaxis. No patients developed transformation to high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma nor myelodysplasia. Low expression levels of human concentrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hCNT1) were correlated with the failure to achieve a CR (P = .024), whereas no association with Zap-70 expression was found.

CONCLUSION:

The combination of rituximab and SC 2-CdA is safe and effective in patients with WM requiring treatment. The pharmacogenomic analysis associated with the study suggests hCNT1 might be beneficial in predicting clinical response to such a combination treatment.

PMID:
20368573
DOI:
10.1200/JCO.2009.23.6315
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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