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Phys Rev Lett. 2010 Mar 19;104(11):116402. Epub 2010 Mar 18.

Spin and charge order in the doped hubbard model: long-wavelength collective modes.

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Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187, USA.


Determining the properties of the two-dimensional Hubbard model is an outstanding problem in physics. Applying recent advances in constrained path auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo techniques and simulating large rectangular supercells, we characterize the magnetic and charge properties in the ground state as a function of doping. At intermediate interaction strengths, an incommensurate spin density wave (SDW) state is found, with antiferromagnetic order and essentially homogeneous charge correlation. The wavelength of the collective mode decreases with doping, as does its magnitude. The SDW order vanishes beyond a critical doping. As the interaction is increased, the holes go from a wavelike (delocalized) to a particlelike (localized) state, and charge ordering develops which eventually evolves into stripelike states.

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