Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Diabetologia. 2010 Jul;53(7):1270-87. doi: 10.1007/s00125-010-1684-1. Epub 2010 Apr 2.

Insulin resistance, lipotoxicity, type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis: the missing links. The Claude Bernard Lecture 2009.

Author information

1
Diabetes Division, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive-MSC 7886, San Antonio, TX, 78229, USA. Albarado@uthscsa.edu

Abstract

Insulin resistance is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus and is associated with a metabolic and cardiovascular cluster of disorders (dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obesity [especially visceral], glucose intolerance, endothelial dysfunction), each of which is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Multiple prospective studies have documented an association between insulin resistance and accelerated CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes, as well as in non-diabetic individuals. The molecular causes of insulin resistance, i.e. impaired insulin signalling through the phosphoinositol-3 kinase pathway with intact signalling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, are responsible for the impairment in insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism and contribute to the accelerated rate of CVD in type 2 diabetes patients. The current epidemic of diabetes is being driven by the obesity epidemic, which represents a state of tissue fat overload. Accumulation of toxic lipid metabolites (fatty acyl CoA, diacylglycerol, ceramide) in muscle, liver, adipocytes, beta cells and arterial tissues contributes to insulin resistance, beta cell dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis, respectively, in type 2 diabetes. Treatment with thiazolidinediones mobilises fat out of tissues, leading to enhanced insulin sensitivity, improved beta cell function and decreased atherogenesis. Insulin resistance and lipotoxicity represent the missing links (beyond the classical cardiovascular risk factors) that help explain the accelerated rate of CVD in type 2 diabetic patients.

PMID:
20361178
PMCID:
PMC2877338
DOI:
10.1007/s00125-010-1684-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center