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Anal Biochem. 1991 Feb 1;192(2):434-40.

Determination of cadmium in blood, plasma, and urine by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry after isolation by anion-exchange chromatography.

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Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois 60439-4833.


The determination of cadmium in whole blood, urine, or plasma by atomic absorption using electrothermal atomization is described. In preparation for atomic absorption analysis, cadmium was concentrated on an anion-exchange column, significantly lowering the limit of detection and allowing for the first time the accurate and precise determination of plasma cadmium concentrations in persons/animals with low-level cadmium exposures. Recovery of 109Cd from spiked whole blood, plasma, and urine into supernatants of nitric acid-deproteinated samples averaged 99, 100, and 95%, respectively. Anion-exchange isolation of the anionic chlorocadmium complex removed 99.8% of the major elements associated with a deproteinated whole blood sample. The recovery of 109Cd from the anion-exchange column was 92.2 +/- 0.9% (mean +/- SE, N = 35). The separation of cadmium from constituents in blood, urine, or plasma in this manner allowed comparison of unknown samples to aqueous standards with a defined acid matrix using commercially available acids. The mean intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was 12 +/- 3% (mean +/- SE, N = 6) for blood, plasma, and urine samples having cadmium concentrations of 0.1-0.8 microgram/liter. The interassay CV was 13% (N = 7) for a blood sample containing 0.6 microgram Cd/liter. The recovery of known amounts of cadmium added to blood, plasma, and urine in the range of 0.2 to 5.0 micrograms Cd/liter was 97 +/- 6% (mean +/- SE, N = 4).

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