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PLoS One. 2010 Mar 23;5(3):e9819. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009819.

Induction of autophagy by cystatin C: a mechanism that protects murine primary cortical neurons and neuronal cell lines.

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1
Nathan S. Kline Institute, Orangeburg, New York, United States of America.

Abstract

Cystatin C (CysC) expression in the brain is elevated in human patients with epilepsy, in animal models of neurodegenerative conditions, and in response to injury, but whether up-regulated CysC expression is a manifestation of neurodegeneration or a cellular repair response is not understood. This study demonstrates that human CysC is neuroprotective in cultures exposed to cytotoxic challenges, including nutritional-deprivation, colchicine, staurosporine, and oxidative stress. While CysC is a cysteine protease inhibitor, cathepsin B inhibition was not required for the neuroprotective action of CysC. Cells responded to CysC by inducing fully functional autophagy via the mTOR pathway, leading to enhanced proteolytic clearance of autophagy substrates by lysosomes. Neuroprotective effects of CysC were prevented by inhibiting autophagy with beclin 1 siRNA or 3-methyladenine. Our findings show that CysC plays a protective role under conditions of neuronal challenge by inducing autophagy via mTOR inhibition and are consistent with CysC being neuroprotective in neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, modulation of CysC expression has therapeutic implications for stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders.

PMID:
20352108
PMCID:
PMC2843718
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0009819
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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