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Emerg Infect Dis. 2010 Apr;16(4):631-7. doi: 10.3201/eid1604.091658.

Household transmission of pandemic (H1N1) 2009, San Antonio, Texas, USA, April-May 2009.

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  • 1Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Mailstop C12, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.


To assess household transmission of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in San Antonio, Texas, USA, during April 15-May 8, 2009, we investigated 77 households. The index case-patient was defined as the household member with the earliest onset date of symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI), influenza-like illness (ILI), or laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Median interval between illness onset in index and secondary case-patients was 4 days (range 1-9 days); the index case-patient was likely to be < or =18 years of age (p = 0.034). The secondary attack rate was 4% for pandemic (H1N1) 2009, 9% for ILI, and 13% for ARI. The secondary attack rate was highest for children <5 years of age (8%-19%) and lowest for adults > or =50 years of age (4%-12%). Early in the outbreak, household transmission primarily occurred from children to other household members and was lower than the transmission rate for seasonal influenza.

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