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J Magn Reson. 2010 Jun;204(2):340-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jmr.2010.03.005. Epub 2010 Mar 9.

In vivo application of sub-second spiral chemical shift imaging (CSI) to hyperpolarized 13C metabolic imaging: comparison with phase-encoded CSI.

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Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Richard M. Lucas Center for Imaging, 1201 Welch Rd., Stanford, CA 94305, USA.


A fast spiral chemical shift imaging (CSI) has been developed to address the challenge of the limited acquisition window in hyperpolarized (13)C metabolic imaging. The sequence exploits the sparsity of the spectra and prior knowledge of resonance frequencies to reduce the measurement time by undersampling the data in the spectral domain. As a consequence, multiple reconstructions are necessary for any given data set as only frequency components within a selected bandwidth are reconstructed "in-focus" while components outside that band are severely blurred ("spectral tomosynthesis"). A variable-flip-angle scheme was used for optimal use of the longitudinal magnetization. The sequence was applied to sub-second metabolic imaging of the rat in vivo after injection of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]-pyruvate on a clinical 3T MR scanner. The comparison with conventional CSI based on phase encoding showed similar signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spatial resolution in metabolic maps for the substrate and its metabolic products lactate, alanine, and bicarbonate, despite a 50-fold reduction in scan time for the spiral CSI acquisition. The presented results demonstrate that dramatic reductions in scan time are feasible in hyperpolarized (13)C metabolic imaging without a penalty in SNR or spatial resolution.

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