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Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010 Jul;1801(7):738-45. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2010.03.009. Epub 2010 Mar 24.

Naturally occurring human plasminogen, like genetically related apolipoprotein(a), contains oxidized phosphatidylcholine adducts.

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Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.


Human apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)), synthesized in the liver, contains oxidized phosphatidylcholine (oxPtdPC) adducts probably generated at the hepatic site. Since plasminogen (Plg), also synthesized in the liver, is genetically related and structurally homologous to apo(a), we wanted to determine whether it contains oxPtdPCs and their location. We used Plg isolated from fresh or frozen normal human plasma and several commercial preparations. Some were freed of non-covalently bound lipids by organic solvent extraction. By immunoblot analyses, all products reacted against T15, a natural IgM monoclonal antibody specific for phosphorylcholine -containing oxidized phospholipids (ox-PLs). This immunoreactivity was retained in urokinase type plasminogen activator -generated plasmin and was abrogated in Plg previously digested with lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)), a reaction that generated predominantly C16:0 lysophosphatidylcholine species as determined by mass spectrometry. Lyso derivatives were also generated upon the cleavage by Lp-PLA2 of a model ox-PL chemically linked to a lysine-containing pentapeptide. From inorganic phosphorous analyses, we found 2 mol of oxPtdPC/mole of Plg distributed between the kringles 1-4 and mini-Plg domain. OxPtdPCs were also present in the Plg isolated from the serum-free medium of cultured human HepG2 cells. In conclusion, our results provide strong evidence that naturally occurring Plg contains oxPtdPC probably linked by a Schiff base and also suggest that the linkage occurs at the hepatic site. Given the emerging evidence for the cardiovascular pathogenicity of oxPtdPCs, we speculate that they may impart athero-thrombogenic properties to Plg under inflammatory conditions.

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