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Diabetes Care. 2010 Jun;33(6):1282-7. doi: 10.2337/dc09-2254. Epub 2010 Mar 23.

Novel use of glucagon in a closed-loop system for prevention of hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA. castleje@ohsu.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To minimize hypoglycemia in subjects with type 1 diabetes by automated glucagon delivery in a closed-loop insulin delivery system.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

Adult subjects with type 1 diabetes underwent one closed-loop study with insulin plus placebo and one study with insulin plus glucagon, given at times of impending hypoglycemia. Seven subjects received glucagon using high-gain parameters, and six subjects received glucagon in a more prolonged manner using low-gain parameters. Blood glucose levels were measured every 10 min and insulin and glucagon infusions were adjusted every 5 min. All subjects received a portion of their usual premeal insulin after meal announcement.

RESULTS:

Automated glucagon plus insulin delivery, compared with placebo plus insulin, significantly reduced time spent in the hypoglycemic range (15 +/- 6 vs. 40 +/- 10 min/day, P = 0.04). Compared with placebo, high-gain glucagon delivery reduced the frequency of hypoglycemic events (1.0 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.6 events/day, P = 0.01) and the need for carbohydrate treatment (1.4 +/- 0.8 vs. 4.0 +/- 1.4 treatments/day, P = 0.01). Glucagon given with low-gain parameters did not significantly reduce hypoglycemic event frequency (P = NS) but did reduce frequency of carbohydrate treatment (P = 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

During closed-loop treatment in subjects with type 1 diabetes, high-gain pulses of glucagon decreased the frequency of hypoglycemia. Larger and longer-term studies will be required to assess the effect of ongoing glucagon treatment on overall glycemic control.

PMID:
20332355
PMCID:
PMC2875438
DOI:
10.2337/dc09-2254
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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