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J Dent Res. 2010 May;89(5):504-9. doi: 10.1177/0022034510363096. Epub 2010 Mar 23.

Inorganic polyphosphate induces osteoblastic differentiation.

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Department of Orthodontics, Matsumoto Dental University School of Dentistry, 1780 Gobara Hirooka, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0874, Japan.


Inorganic polyphosphate [Poly(P)] is especially prevalent in osteoblasts. We tested the hypothesis that Poly(P) stimulates osteoblastic differentiation and polyphosphate metabolism for bone formation. The osteoblast-like cell line, MC 3T3-E1, was cultured with Poly(P), and gene expression was evaluated by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain-reaction. Phosphatase activity and extracellular matrix mineralization were also determined. The role of Poly(P) was assessed in a beagle dog alveolar bone regeneration model. Poly(P) increased osteocalcin, osterix, bone sialoprotein, and tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene expression, with a high level of end-polyphosphatase activity, resulting in low-chain-length Poly(P), inorganic pyrophosphate, and inorganic phosphate production. MC3T3-E1 cells differentiated into mature osteoblasts and showed expression of ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1, while mouse progressive ankylosis gene expression remained unchanged. Promotion of alveolar bone regeneration was observed in Poly(P)-treated beagle dogs. These findings suggest that Poly(P) induces osteoblastic differentiation and bone mineralization, and acts as a resource for mineralization.

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