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Hum Gene Ther. 2010 Jun;21(6):739-49. doi: 10.1089/hum.2009.190.

Targeting adenoviruses with factor x-single-chain antibody fusion proteins.

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Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.


It has been shown that blood clotting factors, including factor X (FX), bind to the adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) hexon protein and target the virus to liver hepatocytes after intravenous injection. These factors bind to hexon via their conserved vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA) domains with subnanomolar affinity. In this work, we have used this strong interaction to retarget Ad to new receptors, using the GLA domain of FX fused to single-chain antibody variable fragment (ScFv). We demonstrate that fusion of the GLA domain of human FX to receptor-specific ScFvs will target Ad5 vectors to cells expressing these receptors. Fusion of an alphaHer2 ScFv to GLA increased in vitro transduction of Her2-positive versus Her2-negative cells when compared with untargeted virus. Similar results were obtained with ScFvs against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and against the stem cell marker ATP-binding cassette protein G2 (ABCG2). Direct expression of GLA fusion protein from replication-defective or replication-competent Ad increased infection and killing of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. These data demonstrate the potential of using GLA domains to bridge secreted ligands with intracellularly produced Ad5 vectors for vector targeting.

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