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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Apr 13;107(15):6976-81. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1001653107. Epub 2010 Mar 22.

Hypoxia inducible microRNA 210 attenuates keratinocyte proliferation and impairs closure in a murine model of ischemic wounds.

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Department of Surgery, Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.


Ischemia complicates wound closure. Here, we are unique in presenting a murine ischemic wound model that is based on bipedicle flap approach. Using this model of ischemic wounds we have sought to elucidate how microRNAs may be implicated in limiting wound re-epithelialization under hypoxia, a major component of ischemia. Ischemia, evaluated by laser Doppler as well as hyperspectral imaging, limited blood flow and lowered tissue oxygen saturation. EPR oximetry demonstrated that the ischemic wound tissue had pO(2) <10 mm Hg. Ischemic wounds suffered from compromised macrophage recruitment and delayed wound epithelialization. Specifically, epithelial proliferation, as determined by Ki67 staining, was compromised. In vivo imaging showed massive hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) stabilization in ischemic wounds, where HIF-1alpha induced miR-210 expression that, in turn, silenced its target E2F3, which was markedly down-regulated in the wound-edge tissue of ischemic wounds. E2F3 was recognized as a key facilitator of cell proliferation. In keratinocytes, knock-down of E2F3 limited cell proliferation. Forced stabilization of HIF-1alpha using Ad-VP16- HIF-1alpha under normoxic conditions up-regulated miR-210 expression, down-regulated E2F3, and limited cell proliferation. Studies using cellular delivery of miR-210 antagomir and mimic demonstrated a key role of miR-210 in limiting keratinocyte proliferation. In summary, these results are unique in presenting evidence demonstrating that the hypoxia component of ischemia may limit wound re-epithelialization by stabilizing HIF-1alpha, which induces miR-210 expression, resulting in the down-regulation of the cell-cycle regulatory protein E2F3.

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