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Pediatrics. 2010 Apr;125(4):640-7. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-2158. Epub 2010 Mar 22.

Widespread vitamin D deficiency in urban Massachusetts newborns and their mothers.

Author information

1
Division of General Pediatrics, Boston Medical Center, 88 E Newton St, Vose 3, Boston, MA 02118, USA. anne.merewood@bmc.org

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine vitamin D status and associated factors in a cohort of newly delivered infants and their mothers in Boston, Massachusetts.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

Enrollment in this cross-sectional study took place from 2005 to 2007 in an urban Boston teaching hospital with 2500 births per year. A questionnaire and medical-record data were used to identify variables that are potentially associated with vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] < 20 ng/mL). Infant and maternal blood was obtained by venipuncture within 72 hours of birth. The main outcome measure was infant and maternal 25(OH)D status, assessed by competitive protein binding.

RESULTS:

We enrolled 459 healthy mother/infant pairs. After subsequent exclusions, analyses were performed on 376 newborns and 433 women. The median infant 25(OH)D level was 17.2 ng/mL (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.0-18.8; range: <5.0 to 60.8 ng/mL). The median maternal 25(OH)D level was 24.8 ng/mL (95% CI: 23.2-25.8; range: <5.0 to 79.2 ng/mL). Overall, 58.0% of the infants and 35.8% of the mothers were vitamin D deficient (25[OH]D < 20 ng/mL); 38.0% of the infants and 23.1% of the mothers were severely deficient (25[OH]D < 15 ng/mL). Risk factors for infant vitamin D deficiency included maternal deficiency (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 5.28 [95% CI: 2.90-9.62]), winter birth (aOR: 3.86 [95% CI: 1.74-8.55]), black race (aOR: 3.36 [95% CI: 1.37-8.25]), and a maternal BMI of >/=35 (aOR: 2.78 [95% CI: 1.18-6.55]). Maternal prenatal-vitamin use throughout the second and third trimesters was protective against infant deficiency (aOR: 0.30 [95% CI: 0.16-0.56]). Similarly, prenatal-vitamin use of > or =5 times per week in the third trimester was protective for mothers (aOR: 0.37 [95% CI: 0.20-0.69]). Despite this, >30% of the women who took prenatal vitamins were still vitamin D deficient at the time of birth.

CONCLUSIONS:

A high proportion of infants and their mothers in New England were vitamin D deficient. Prenatal vitamins may not contain enough vitamin D to ensure replete status at the time of birth.

PMID:
20308219
DOI:
10.1542/peds.2009-2158
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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