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Antiviral Res. 2010 Jun;86(3):276-85. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2010.03.007. Epub 2010 Mar 20.

Compounds that target host cell proteins prevent varicella-zoster virus replication in culture, ex vivo, and in SCID-Hu mice.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, 750 East Adams Street, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA. rowej@upstate.edu

Abstract

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) replicates in quiescent T cells, neurons, and skin cells. In cultured fibroblasts (HFFs), VZV induces host cyclin expression and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity without causing cell cycle progression. CDK1/cyclin B1 phosphorylates the major viral transactivator, and the CDK inhibitor roscovitine prevents VZV mRNA transcription. We investigated the antiviral effects of additional compounds that target CDKs or other cell cycle enzymes in culture, ex vivo, and in vivo. Cytotoxicity and cell growth arrest doses were determined by Neutral Red assay. Antiviral effects were evaluated in HFFs by plaque assay, genome copy number, and bioluminescence. Positive controls were acyclovir (400 microM) and phosphonoacetic acid (PAA, 1 mM). Test compounds were roscovitine, aloisine A, and purvalanol A (CDK inhibitors), aphidicolin (inhibits human and herpesvirus DNA polymerase), l-mimosine (indirectly inhibits human DNA polymerase), and DRB (inhibits casein kinase 2). All had antiviral effects below the concentrations required for cell growth arrest. Compounds were tested in skin organ culture at EC(99) doses; all prevented VZV replication in skin, except for aloisine A and purvalanol A. In SCID mice with skin xenografts, roscovitine (0.7 mg/kg/day) was as effective as PAA (36 mg/kg/day). The screening systems described here are useful models for evaluating novel antiviral drugs for VZV.

PMID:
20307580
PMCID:
PMC2866756
DOI:
10.1016/j.antiviral.2010.03.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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