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Annu Rev Biochem. 2010;79:413-44. doi: 10.1146/annurev.biochem.052308.105824.

Adding new chemistries to the genetic code.

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The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.


The development of new orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pairs has led to the addition of approximately 70 unnatural amino acids (UAAs) to the genetic codes of Escherichia coli, yeast, and mammalian cells. These UAAs represent a wide range of structures and functions not found in the canonical 20 amino acids and thus provide new opportunities to generate proteins with enhanced or novel properties and probes of protein structure and function.

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