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J Neurosci Methods. 2010 May 30;189(1):121-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2010.03.007. Epub 2010 Mar 19.

Granger causality relationships between local field potentials in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

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Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6131, USA.


An understanding of the in vivo spatial emergence of abnormal brain activity during spontaneous seizure onset is critical to future early seizure detection and closed-loop seizure prevention therapies. In this study, we use Granger causality (GC) to determine the strength and direction of relationships between local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from bilateral microelectrode arrays in an intermittent spontaneous seizure model of chronic temporal lobe epilepsy before, during, and after Racine grade partial onset generalized seizures. Our results indicate distinct patterns of directional GC relationships within the hippocampus, specifically from the CA1 subfield to the dentate gyrus, prior to and during seizure onset. Our results suggest sequential and hierarchical temporal relationships between the CA1 and dentate gyrus within and across hippocampal hemispheres during seizure. Additionally, our analysis suggests a reversal in the direction of GC relationships during seizure, from an abnormal pattern to more anatomically expected pattern. This reversal correlates well with the observed behavioral transition from tonic to clonic seizure in time-locked video. These findings highlight the utility of GC to reveal dynamic directional temporal relationships between multichannel LFP recordings from multiple brain regions during unprovoked spontaneous seizures.

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