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J Chem Theory Comput. 2010;6(3):774-786.

Simulating Monovalent and Divalent Ions in Aqueous Solution Using a Drude Polarizable Force Field.

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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, the University of Chicago, 929 E. 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637.


An accurate representation of ion solvation in aqueous solution is critical for meaningful computer simulations of a broad range of physical and biological processes. Polarizable models based on classical Drude oscillators are introduced and parametrized for a large set of monoatomic ions including cations of the alkali metals (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+) and Cs(+)) and alkaline earth elements (Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+) and Ba(2+)) along with Zn(2+) and halide anions (F(-), Cl(-), Br(-) and I(-)). The models are parameterized, in conjunction with the polarizable SWM4-NDP water model [Lamoureux et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 245 (2006)], to be consistent with a wide assortment of experimentally measured aqueous bulk thermodynamic properties and the energetics of small ion-water clusters. Structural and dynamic properties of the resulting ion models in aqueous solutions at infinite dilution are presented.

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