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Bioresour Technol. 2010 Jul;101(14):5459-68. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.02.066. Epub 2010 Mar 17.

Variability of bulk density of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) during gravity-driven discharge.

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Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Purdue University, 225 S University Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.


Loading railcars with consistent tonnage has immense cost implications for the shipping of distillers' dried grains with soluble (DDGS) product. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the bulk density variability of DDGS during filling of railcar hoppers. An apparatus was developed similar to a spinning riffler sampler in order to simulate the filling of railcars at an ethanol plant. There was significant difference (P<0.05) between the initial and final measures of bulk density and particle size as the hoppers were emptied in both mass and funnel flow patterns. Particle segregation that takes place during filling of hoppers contributed to the bulk density variation and was explained by particle size variation. This phenomenon is most likely the same throughout the industry and an appropriate sampling procedure should be adopted for measuring the bulk density of DDGS stored silos or transported in railcar hoppers.

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