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Pediatr Nephrol. 2010 Jul;25(7):1305-10. doi: 10.1007/s00467-010-1483-4. Epub 2010 Mar 11.

Management of regional citrate anticoagulation in pediatric high-flux dialysis: activated coagulation time versus post-filter ionized calcium.

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Pediatric Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany.


Recent years has seen an increasing use of regional citrate anticoagulation in pediatric dialysis. Several approaches have been described for monitoring anticoagulation in the extracorporeal circuit, such as serum citrate levels, post-filter ionized calcium (iCa), and activated coagulation time (ACT). However, no standard recommendations have yet been established for applying any of these parameters, especially for iCa. The objective of this retrospective analysis was to establish adequate coagulation management using post-filter iCa values. Normal values for ACTester-based ACT were established using a group of 64 children who were divided into two subgroups, with one subgroup comprising children without chronic kidney disease or coagulation disorder (age 1.2-17.5 years, median 9.7 years) and one consisting of 32 uremic patients (age 0.6-17.5 years, median 13.7 years). In a second group of 13 patients (aged 7-17 years), all of whom were undergoing high-flux dialysis (HD) with regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA), we assessed 73 post-filter blood samples for ionized calcium and ACT. A receiver operating characteristic graph was used to identify the iCa threshold needed to achieve adequate anticoagulation. Normal values for ACT were 90 s [2 standard deviations (SD) 72-109] in healthy children and 94 s (2 SD 75-113) in the uremic children. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups. In the children undergoing HD with RCA, the post-filter iCa level correlated with ACT (r = -0.94, p < 0.001). A post-filter iCa level of < or = 0.30 mmol/l reliably predicted an ACT >120 s. Our citrate protocol [citrate 3% rate (ml/h) approximately blood flow rate (ml/min) x 2] meets the established criteria with a high sensitivity. Based on these results, we conclude that the post-filter iCa level can be reliably used for the management of extracorporeal anticoagulation with citrate in pediatric HD. We recommend the application of our citrate prescription protocol in the setting of pediatric intermittent hemodialysis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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