Send to

Choose Destination
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Aug;51(8):3864-73. doi: 10.1167/iovs.09-4969. Epub 2010 Mar 10.

Effects of optical defocus on refractive development in monkeys: evidence for local, regionally selective mechanisms.

Author information

College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-2020, USA.



To characterize the influence of optical defocus on ocular shape and the pattern of peripheral refraction in infant rhesus monkeys.


Starting at 3 weeks of age, eight infant monkeys were reared wearing -3 diopter (D) spectacle lenses over one eye that produced relative hyperopic defocus in the nasal field (NF) but allowed unrestricted vision in the temporal field (NF group). Six infants were reared with monocular -3 D lenses that produced relative hyperopic defocus across the entire field of view. Control data were obtained from 11 normal monkeys. Refractive development was assessed by streak retinoscopy performed along the pupillary axis and at eccentricities of 15 degrees, 30 degrees, and 45 degrees along the vertical and horizontal meridians. Central axial dimensions and eye shape were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging.


In response to full-field hyperopic defocus, the eye developed relative central axial myopia, became less oblate, and exhibited relative peripheral hyperopia in both the nasal and the temporal hemifields. Conversely, nasal-field hyperopic defocus produced relative myopia that was largely restricted to the nasal hemifield; these alterations in the patterns of peripheral refraction in the NF monkeys were associated with local, region-specific alterations in vitreous chamber depth in the treated hemiretina.


Optically imposed defocus can alter the shape and pattern of peripheral refraction in infant primates. Like those of form deprivation, the effects of optical defocus in primates are dominated by mechanisms that integrate visual signals in a spatially restricted manner and exert their influence in a regionally selective manner.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center