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Tissue Eng Part A. 2010 Aug;16(8):2457-66. doi: 10.1089/ten.TEA.2010.0024.

Host myeloid cells are necessary for creating bioengineered human vascular networks in vivo.

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Vascular Biology Program and Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital Boston , Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.


The recruitment of myeloid cells has been consistently associated with the formation of new blood vessels during pathological angiogenesis. However, the participation of myeloid cells in bioengineered vascular networks remains unclear. Therefore, we tested whether host myeloid cells play a role in the formation of bioengineered vascular networks that occurs in vivo upon coimplantation of blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells and bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells, suspended as single cells in Matrigel, into immune-deficient mice. We observed an influx of spatially organized host CD11b(+) myeloid cells into the Matrigel implant 1 to 3 days after implantation, which was shown to be cell mediated rather than a nonspecific response. Myeloid cells were significantly reduced once the implants were fully vascularized at days 6 and 7, suggesting an active role during steps that precede formation of functional anastomoses and perfused vessels. Importantly, depletion of circulating myeloid cells resulted in a significant reduction in microvessel density in the implants. In summary, the recruitment of myeloid cells occurs rapidly after coimplantation of endothelial and mesenchymal progenitor cells and is necessary for full vascularization in this model. This is the first demonstration of a role for recruited myeloid cells in the formation of bioengineered vascular networks.

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