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Int J Pharm Pract. 2009 Feb;17(1):39-46.

Impact of perceived innovation characteristics on adoption of pharmacy-based in-house immunization services.

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Pharmacy Care Systems, Auburn University School of Pharmacy, Auburn, AL 36849, USA.



An in-house immunization service in which staff pharmacists administer vaccines was conceptualized as an innovation. Prior to making adoption decisions, community pharmacies evaluated characteristics of in-house immunization services. This study examined the impact of three specific characteristics (perceived benefit, perceived compatibility and perceived complexity) of in-house immunization services on community pharmacies' adoption decisions.


A multi-stage mixed-mode survey design was used to collect data from key informants of community pharmacies in Washington State, USA. Key informants included pharmacy managers or pharmacists-on-duty who were able to answer questions related to immunization activities in their pharmacies. Perceived characteristics of in-house immunization services and pharmacy adoption decisions were measured in 2004 and in 2006-2007, respectively.


Each perceived characteristic individually predicted adoption of in-house immunization services. When all three characteristics were included in logistic regression, perceived benefit was the only significant predictor of in-house immunization service adoption.


Appropriate strategies, particularly promoting the benefit of in-house immunization services, should be implemented. The proposed model and findings may be applicable to other pharmacy-based innovative practices or other public health initiatives. We recommend that organizational leaders, researchers and practitioners consider the impact of perceived benefit and incorporate it when they design strategies to foster adoption of innovative practices. Doing this may increase the number of adopters and also increase diffusion rates for innovative services.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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