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Appl Opt. 1979 Jul 1;18(13):2152-8. doi: 10.1364/AO.18.002152.

High efficiency multiple beam gratings.


Diffraction gratings are used in many optical systems as beam splitters. In these applications the diffraction grating must (1) have high diffraction efficiency and (2) produce uniform intensities in the central block of diffracted beams. High diffraction efficiency is attained by making the grating a phase grating. In this paper we discuss in some detail the use of pulse width modulation (PWM) and pulse position modulation (PPM) to create grating structures that produce uniform central diffracted beams. By using these modulation techniques and proper phase relief for the grating, the diffraction grating can have a diffraction efficiency of 70% or more. Some examples of multiple beam diffraction gratings produced by using PWM and PPM are shown.

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