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J Biomech Eng. 1991 Feb;113(1):63-71.

On a nonlinear theory for muscle shells: Part II--Application to the beating left ventricle.

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Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, NY 14627.


This paper specializes the nonlinear laminated-muscle-shell theory developed in Part I to cylindrical geometry and computes stresses in arteries and the beating left ventricle. The theory accounts for large strain, material nonlinearity, thick-shell effects, torsion, muscle activation, and residual strain. First, comparison with elasticity solutions for pressurized arteries shows that the accuracy of the shell theory increases as transmural stress gradients and the shell thickness decrease. Residual strain reduces the stress gradients, lowering the error in the predicted peak stress in thick-walled arteries (R/t = 2.8) from about 30 to 10 percent. Second, the canine left ventricle is modeled as a thick-walled laminated cylinder with an internal pressure. Each layer is composed of transversely isotropic muscle with a fiber orientation based on anatomical data. Using a single pseudostrain-energy density function (with time-varying coefficients) for passive and active myocardium, the model predicts strain distributions that agree fairly well with published experimental measurements. The results also show that the peak fiber stress occurs subendocardially near the beginning of ejection and that residual strains significantly alter stress gradients within each lamina, but the magnitude of the peak fiber stress changes by less than 20 percent.

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