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J Gen Virol. 2010 Jul;91(Pt 7):1782-93. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.019133-0. Epub 2010 Mar 3.

Rotavirus NSP5 orchestrates recruitment of viroplasmic proteins.

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International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Padriciano 99, 34149 Trieste, Italy.


Rotavirus genome replication and the first steps of virus morphogenesis take place in cytoplasmic viral factories, called viroplasms, containing four structural (VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP6) and two non-structural (NSP2 and NSP5) proteins. NSP2 and NSP5 have been shown to be essential for viroplasm formation and, when co-expressed in uninfected cells, to form viroplasm-like structures (VLS). In the present work, VLS formation was shown upon co-expression of NSP5 with the core protein VP2 despite the absence of NSP2, indicating a central role for NSP5 in VLS assembly. Since VP2 and NSP2 also induce NSP5 hyperphosphorylation, the possible correlation between VLS formation and the NSP5 phosphorylation status was investigated without evidence of a direct link. In VLS induced by NSP2, the polymerase VP1 was recruited, while the middle layer protein VP6 was not, forming instead tubular structures. On the other hand, VLS induced by VP2 were able to recruit both VP1 and VP6. More importantly, in VLS formed when NSP5 was expressed with both inducers, all viroplasmic proteins were found co-localized, resembling their distribution in viroplasms. Our results suggest a key role for NSP5 in architectural assembly of viroplasms and in recruitment of viroplasmic proteins. A new role for VP2 as an inducer of viroplasms and of NSP5 hyperphosphorylation is also described. These data may contribute to the understanding of rotavirus morphogenesis.

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