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DNA Repair (Amst). 2010 May 4;9(5):478-87. doi: 10.1016/j.dnarep.2010.01.011. Epub 2010 Feb 25.

Interaction between human mismatch repair recognition proteins and checkpoint sensor Rad9-Rad1-Hus1.

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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.


In eukaryotic cells, the cell cycle checkpoint proteins Rad9, Rad1, and Hus1 form the 9-1-1 complex which is structurally similar to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) sliding clamp. hMSH2/hMSH6 (hMutS alpha) and hMSH2/hMSH3 (hMutS beta) are the mismatch recognition factors of the mismatch repair pathway. hMutS alpha has been shown to physically and functionally interact with PCNA. Moreover, DNA methylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment induces the G2/M cell cycle arrest that is dependent on the presence of hMutS alpha and hMutL alpha. In this study, we show that each subunit of the human 9-1-1 complex physically interacts with hMSH2, hMSH3, and hMSH6. The 9-1-1 complex from both humans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe can stimulate hMutS alpha binding with G/T-containing DNA. Rad9, Rad1, and Hus1 individual subunits can also stimulate the DNA binding activity of hMutS alpha. Human Rad9 and hMSH6 colocalize to nuclear foci of HeLa cells after exposure to MNNG. However, Rad9 does not form foci in MSH6 defective cells following MNNG treatment. In Rad9 knockdown untreated cells, the majority of the MSH6 is in cytoplasm. Following MNNG treatment, Rad9 knockdown cells has abnormal nuclear morphology and MSH6 is distributed around nuclear envelop. Our findings suggest that the 9-1-1 complex is a component of the mismatch repair involved in MNNG-induced damage response.

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