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Neurobiol Dis. 2010 Jul;39(1):53-60. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2010.02.005. Epub 2010 Feb 24.

Epigenetic mechanisms underlying human epileptic disorders and the process of epileptogenesis.

Author information

1
Rosyln and Leslie Goldstein Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461, USA. irfan@jhu.edu

Abstract

The rapidly emerging science of epigenetics and epigenomic medicine promises to reveal novel insights into the susceptibility to and the onset and progression of epileptic disorders. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are now implicated in orchestrating aspects of neural development (e.g., cell fate specification and maturation), homeostasis and stress responses (e.g., immediate early gene transcription), and neural network function (e.g., excitation-inhibition coupling and activity-dependent plasticity). These same neurobiological processes are responsible for determining the heterogeneous features of complex epileptic disease states. Thus, we highlight recent evidence that is beginning to elucidate the specific roles played by epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone code modifications and chromatin remodeling, noncoding RNAs and RNA editing, in human epilepsy syndromes and in the process of epileptogenesis. The highly integrated layers of the epigenome are responsible for the cell type specific and exquisitely environmentally responsive deployment of genes and functional gene networks that underlie the molecular pathophysiology of epilepsy and its associated comorbidities, including but not limited to neurotransmitter receptors (e.g., GluR2, GLRA2, and GLRA3), growth factors (e.g., BDNF), extracellular matrix proteins (e.g., RELN), and diverse transcriptional regulators (e.g., CREB, c-fos, and c-jun). These important observations suggest that future epigenetic studies are necessary to better understand, classify, prevent, and treat epileptic disorders.

PMID:
20188170
PMCID:
PMC2874104
DOI:
10.1016/j.nbd.2010.02.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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