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Regul Pept. 2010 Apr 9;161(1-3):8-14. doi: 10.1016/j.regpep.2010.02.005. Epub 2010 Feb 23.

Metabolic effects and mechanism of action of the chromogranin A-derived peptide pancreastatin.

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Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Virgen Macarena University Hospital, University of Seville, Spain.


Pancreastatin is one of the regulatory peptides derived from intracellular and/or extracellular processing of chromogranin A, the soluble acidic protein present in the secretory granules of the neuroendocrine system. While the intracellular functions of chromogranin A include formation and maturation of the secretory granule, the major extracellular functions are generation of biologically active peptides with demonstrated autocrine, paracrine or endocrine activities. In this review, we will focus on the metabolic function of one of these peptides, pancreastatin, and the mechanisms underlying its effects. Many different reported effects have implicated PST in the modulation of energy metabolism, with a general counterregulatory effect to that of insulin. Pancreastatin induces glycogenolysis in liver and lipolysis in adipocytes. Metabolic effects have been confirmed in humans. Moreover, naturally occurring human variants have been found, one of which (Gly297Ser) occurs in the functionally important carboxy-terminus of the peptide, and substantially increases the peptide's potency to inhibit cellular glucose uptake. Thus, qualitative hereditary alterations in pancreastatin's primary structure may give rise to interindividual differences in glucose and lipid metabolism. Pancreastatin activates a receptor signaling system that belongs to the seven-spanning transmembrane receptor coupled to a Gq-PLCbeta-calcium-PKC signaling pathway. Increased pancreastatin plasma levels, correlating with catecholamines levels, have been found in insulin resistance states, such as gestational diabetes or essential hypertension. Pancreastatin plays important physiological role in potentiating the metabolic effects of catecholamines, and may also play a pathophysiological role in insulin resistance states with increased sympathetic activity.

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