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Dev Neuropsychol. 2009;34(4):461-75. doi: 10.1080/87565640902964540.

Tower of London performance in healthy adolescents: the development of planning skills and associations with self-reported inattention and impulsivity.

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1
Department of Psychology and Center for Neurobehavioral Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. lucia003@umn.edu

Abstract

Studies have investigated planning skill development using the Tower of London (TOL). Reports conflict regarding maturational trajectories and associations with IQ, other executive functions, and impulsivity. A convenience sample of 9- to 20-year-olds completed the TOL and other measures. TOL accuracy improved until ages 15-17. Digit span backwards (DSB), response inhibition, and IQ were correlated with TOL performance. DSB contributed to TOL accuracy above and beyond age and IQ. Inhibitory control and DSB both contributed to the modulation of planning times across problems. Self-reported inattention and hyperactivity were associated with low performance. Task approaches reflecting planning and psychometric issues are discussed.

PMID:
20183711
PMCID:
PMC4203700
DOI:
10.1080/87565640902964540
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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