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Prog Lipid Res. 2010 Jul;49(3):250-61. doi: 10.1016/j.plipres.2010.01.002. Epub 2010 Feb 20.

Regulatory activity of polyunsaturated fatty acids in T-cell signaling.

Author information

1
Program in Integrative Nutrition and Complex Diseases, Center for Environmental and Rural Health, Texas A&M University, USA.

Abstract

n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are considered to be authentic immunosuppressors and appear to exert beneficial effects with respect to certain immune-mediated diseases. In addition to promoting T-helper 1 (Th1) cell to T-helper 2 (Th2) cell effector T-cell differentiation, n-3 PUFA may also exert anti-inflammatory actions by inducing apoptosis in Th1 cells. With respect to mechanisms of action, effects range from the modulation of membrane receptors to gene transcription via perturbation of a number of second messenger cascades. In this review, the putative targets of anti-inflammatory n-3 PUFA, activated during early and late events of T-cell activation will be discussed. Studies have demonstrated that these fatty acids alter plasma membrane micro-organization (lipid rafts) at the immunological synapse, the site where T-cells and antigen-presenting cells (APC) form a physical contact for antigen initiated T-cell signaling. In addition, the production of diacylglycerol and the activation of different isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), calcium signaling, and nuclear translocation/activation of transcriptional factors, can be modulated by n-3 PUFA. Advantages and limitations of diverse methodologies to study the membrane lipid raft hypothesis, as well as apparent contradictions regarding the effect of n-3 PUFA on lipid rafts will be critically presented.

PMID:
20176053
PMCID:
PMC2872685
DOI:
10.1016/j.plipres.2010.01.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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