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J Dairy Sci. 2010 Mar;93(3):1012-21. doi: 10.3168/jds.2009-2539.

Effect of a high cornstarch diet on hepatic cytochrome P450 2C and 3A activity and progesterone half-life in dairy cows.

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1
Division of Animal and Nutritional Sciences, Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Design, West Virginia University, Morgantown 26506, USA.

Abstract

In the cow, inadequate concentrations of progesterone during gestation may lead to an abrupt termination of pregnancy. The primary organ involved in progesterone catabolism is the liver, which contains an abundance of cytochrome P450 isozymes (EC 1.14.14.1; mixed-function monooxygenases). The objectives of the current experiment were to determine the effect of feeding 2 isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets, formulated to cause divergent insulin secretion, on hepatic cytochrome P450 2C (CYP2C) and 3A (CYP3A) activity as well as the resulting biological half-life of progesterone. Twenty-two Holstein cows averaging 80+/-7 d in milk were randomly assigned to either a high cornstarch diet or a high fiber diet in a crossover experimental design consisting of two 14-d periods. Dry matter intake, milk yield, milk lactose yield, and milk lactose percentage were similar between the 2 diets. Milk fat yield and milk fat percentage were higher in cows fed the high fiber diet, whereas milk protein yield tended to be higher and milk protein percentage was higher in cows fed the high cornstarch diet. Energy balance tended to be improved by 57% in cows consuming the high cornstarch diet. Insulin concentrations at the time of liver biopsy (3.16+/-0.04h post-feeding) were increased by 44% in cows consuming the high cornstarch diet compared with cows consuming the high fiber diet. Cytochrome P450 2C activity was decreased by 45%, whereas CYP3A activity tended to be lowered by 34% in cows consuming the high cornstarch diet. Cytochrome P450 2C mRNA expression tended to be decreased by 21% in cows fed the high cornstarch diet, whereas CYP3A mRNA expression was not different between the dietary treatments. The fractional rate constant of progesterone decay was not different between the 2 diets; however, the half-life of progesterone tended to be longer in cows fed the high cornstarch diet compared with cows fed the high fiber diet (85 vs. 64min, respectively). In summary, cows consuming the high cornstarch diet had increased insulin concentrations and lower hepatic CYP2C and CYP3A activity and tended to have a longer progesterone half-life compared with cows consuming the high fiber diet. Feeding diets that stimulate insulin secretion could alter progesterone clearance during lactation, when dairy cows have increased rates of progesterone inactivation because of high energy demands and increased DMI.

PMID:
20172221
DOI:
10.3168/jds.2009-2539
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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