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Anal Chim Acta. 2010 Mar 17;663(1):27-32. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2010.01.023. Epub 2010 Feb 1.

Pressurized Hot Water Extraction of anthocyanins from red onion: A study on extraction and degradation rates.

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Uppsala University, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 599, SE-751 24, Uppsala, Sweden.


Pressurized Hot Water Extraction (PHWE) is a quick, efficient and environmentally friendly technique for extractions. However, when using PHWE to extract thermally unstable analytes, extraction and degradation effects occur at the same time, and thereby compete. At first, the extraction effect dominates, but degradation effects soon take over. In this paper, extraction and degradation rates of anthocyanins from red onion were studied with experiments in a static batch reactor at 110 degrees C. A total extraction curve was calculated with data from the actual extraction and degradation curves, showing that more anthocyanins, 21-36% depending on the species, could be extracted if no degradation occurred, but then longer extraction times would be required than those needed to reach the peak level in the apparent extraction curves. The results give information about the different kinetic processes competing during an extraction procedure.

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