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Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010 May 15;167(1):86-103. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2010.02.010. Epub 2010 Feb 18.

Neurohormones and neuropeptides encoded by the genome of Lottia gigantea, with reference to other mollusks and insects.

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Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, CNIC UMR 5228, 33400 Talence, France.


The Lottia gigantea genome was prospected for the presence of genes coding neuropeptides and neurohormones. Four genes code insulin-related peptides: two genes code molluscan insulin-like growth hormones, one gene an insulin very similar to vertebrate insulin, and the fourth a peptide related to drosophila insulin-like peptide 7. Four other genes encode the cysteine-knot proteins GPA2/GPB5 and bursicon/parabursicon. Another 37 genes code for precursors of the following neuropeptides: achatin, APGWamide, allatostatin C, allatotropin, buccalin (perhaps an allatostatin A homolog), cerebrin, CCAP, conopressin, elevenin (the predicted neuropeptide made by abdominal neuron 11 in Aplysia), egg laying hormone (two genes), enterin, feeding circuit activating neuropeptide (FCAP), FFamide, FMRFamide, GGNG, a GnRH-like peptide, the newly discovered LASGLVamide, LFRFamide, LFRYamide, LRNFVamide, luqin, lymnokinin, myomodulin (two genes), the newly discovered NKY, NPY, pedal peptide (three genes), PKYMDT, pleurin, PXFVamide, small cardioactive peptides, tachykinins (two genes) and WWamide (an allatostatin B homolog). One gene was found to encode FWISamide, while about 20 closely related genes were found to encode WWFamide. These small neuropeptides appear homologous to the NdWFamide, which contains d-Trp; these genes are similar to the Aplysia gene encoding NWFamide. Some of these peptides had not been previously identified from mollusks, such as the predicted hormones similar to Drosophila and vertebrate insulins, bursicon, the putative proctolin homolog PKYMDT and allatostatin C. Together with neuropeptides which are likely homologs of other insect neuropeptides, such as cerebrin and WWamide, this shows that despite significant differences the molluscan and arthropod neuropeptidomes are more similar than generally recognized.

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